The purpose of this case study is to discover the effectiveness of the instructional design of an organization's current programs. The central research question was to determine how instructional design impacts the effectiveness of a nontraditional court-ordered parental instructional program. The theory guiding this study is Kearsley & Schneiderman’s engagement theory, as it structures interactions to facilitate collaboration in a project-based environment with a meaningful focus using instructional design. The methodology for analyzing this study includes Yin’s and Stake’s models to understand a profoundly complex social phenomenon and actual live program. This study gave intrinsic and extrinsic validity while researching a single program. During this study, ten parents expressed their experiences through interviews, participants' reviews of the interview findings, and letter writing. The study used Yin’s transparent and systematic data collection and analysis approach. In addition, participants reviewed their interview drafts and pattern matching instead of the parent and instructor’s relationships influencing the response. A chain of events protocol documented the process for reliability. This study found that the instructional design for this program affected the perceived effectiveness by deliberately associating intervention methods and models of the engagement theory, transformative learning theory, and peacebuilding practices. As a result, an instructional design emerged supporting specific attributes for mothers with symptoms of prolonged complex post-traumatic stress disorder to transition their mindset while lowering their cognitive load. In addition, it provided a safe space for the parents to create and practice solutions with stakeholders through meaningful projects.
Keywords: complex PTSD, engagement theory, instructional design, online learning, parenting instruction, peacebuilding, transformative learning theory
Howell, S. (2022), Effectiveness of Instructional Design and Technology in a Non-Traditional Parental Program: An Embedded Single Case Study. https://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/doctoral/4091
The problem is that the effectiveness of the instructional design of this organization's current programs is unknown. This study evaluated this problem from an instructional design perspective, evaluating positive outcomes. Instructional design analyzes the process to ensure that a learning design uses effective methods, models, objectives, activities, and assessments. This study focused on effectiveness in learning activities, including collaboration and project-based learning, using meaningful focus (Kearsley & Shneiderman, 1998). Meaningful focus is subjective and specific to each student. Documenting the characteristics of effective instructional design in non-traditional parenting instruction would assist the originators of the programs in creating new frameworks (Favez et al., 2019; Ferraro et al., 2016). This study explained that these challenges require unique instructional design attributes (Donham et al., 2022) and new data to create engaging, substantive course content and assessment techniques. The case study shared the users’ perceptions of online technology, hybrid, and face-to-face instruction. Finally, this study discussed the effectiveness of a parental instructional program utilizing these instructional designs.
Prior studies did not consider these instructional design techniques to address today’s technologically advanced options or the exact activities that would be most effective. The issue within the literature is that the advanced technology instructors use today did not exist for previous researchers to study (Creswell & Poth, 2018). Programs today offer online, blended, and hybrid designs to better ensure parents can complete these courses if designed to be effectively engaging. The problem is seeking a solution that allows parents to transform their family’s behaviors (Eira Nunes et al., 2021; Yıldız et al., 2021).
The purpose of this case study is to discover the effectiveness of the instructional design of this organization's current parental programs. At this stage in the research, the central phenomenon of the study is the effectiveness of the parental program’s ID learning activities and methods, generally defined as collaboration, project-based and meaningful focus.
The most significant limitation was that parents did not want to discuss how ID affects the program's effectiveness. Regardless of the questions, participants responded with stories explaining their transitions and how the program affected their lives. Even after a second interview to dig deeper, they did not discuss the research subject of ID. Instead, they continued to report their progress because of the program. This pattern led to the researcher interpreting the narratives. The researcher was also the instructor, instructional designer, and SME. Inexperienced researchers could not have resolved the connection in the same way. This study did not interview parents who did not use the transformation process to complete the course successfully.
Another limitation of this study is that the researcher used the program's original design to create a way to measure the program's effectiveness because there are no frameworks to follow. Once the effectiveness of the program was determined, the study could move toward defining how the ID affects its effectiveness. Finally, the researcher had to design a way to measure how the ID could affect the study's effectiveness. Further, there was no specific way to research how ID affects the effectiveness of a non-traditional parenting program. There have yet to be any prior evaluation tools created to determine how ID methods assess how the engagement theory, collaboration, project-based learning, or meaningful focus activities affects effectiveness. In addition, prior studies have not documented processes to measure how peacebuilding or transformative learning theory affects adults with CPTSD compared to other methods. The face-to-face, in-person, and online learning methods also have not been researched in cases with these same parents. In the end, the original ID did not match the parent’s perceived design requiring the researcher to create a new design to reveal the response to the central research question.
The delimitations are that the data comes from a single parenting program. The participants who volunteered were all women. These mothers believed that the men did not participate because they did not read the email, did not trust confidentiality, and were generally dissatisfied that they had to complete the non-traditional parenting program. Their perceptions assumed that the fathers did not take the course because they did not believe they were the problem or were happy to see the mom struggle. Two of the fathers had passed.
Throughout this study, parents’ experiences describe high-conflict court cases and the ID of a non-traditional parenting instruction program. It explained how the ID affects the program's effectiveness. In addition to describing these processes, interpretations of parents’ experiences through their abstract narratives highlight meaningful aspects. These aspects flow from one step to the next. Sometimes parents visit sections out of order or simultaneously as needed throughout the design. ID has invisible aspects for students, making it complicated to describe. The researcher found the flow chart design when the parents named their many prolonged experiences after coding the themes. The training did not provide literal facts to change the students' lives in this study. Instead, these parents with CPTSD experienced a structure to alter their behaviors and mindsets (Cuevas, 2019), knowledge, skills, and attitudes to find creative solutions regarding their family situations. Instructional designers use deliberate techniques and rely heavily on strategies and frameworks (Gagné & Briggs, 1974). Without evaluation, instructors may not understand participants' perceptions. However, the student’s perception of the instructor’s mindset and the safe space provided for their transition was relevant.
Other designers, instructors, therapists, criminologists, the states, and the court system can follow this study to understand the design process. The parents’ narratives and outcomes displayed the instructor's effective interventions. Additional inquiries could create policy changes, support procedures, personnel, and design aspects for these parents. Finally, by switching the content and persons of interest, the TMID could create a structure for other adult learners with different needs who may be suffering from emotional crises and dilemmas.
EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY IN A NON-TRADITIONAL PARENTAL PROGRAM: AN EMBEDDED SINGLE CASE STUDY
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